This guide is the official reference and support resource for Department of Defense Instruction (DoDI) 1322.26. This reference guide augments Section 4 ("Distributed Learning: Standards, Implementation, and Other Considerations") and Section 5 ("DADLAC Charter") from DoDI 1322.26. This reference contains the most recent technical information available and will be updated as ADL and the DADLAC identify new information or recommend changes to standards, specifications, conformance, testing, acquisition, and other distributed learning topic areas. Readers are encouraged to visit this reference frequently for the latest available technical information and guidelines.
When the original DoDI 1322.26 was published in 2006 it did not include a companion reference guide maintained by ADL. While updating the DoDI 1322.26 in 2016, DoD Components identified a need for ADL to provide companion documentation that could be easily updated independent of the instruction. This reference guide was created to satisfy this need and better support new requirements and emerging learning technology standards for DoD Components and DADLAC members.
DL is defined in the DoD 1322.26 as any type of learning mediated with technology and accessed through a network or experienced via portable media. A key characteristic of DL and distinction from traditional classroom learning is that instruction and learning can occur independent of time and place (asynchronous and self-paced). Distributed learning may also be dependent on time only if it includes synchronous sessions or if the content is paced.
DL standards are published technical specification documents that are designed to ensure interoperability of learning technology products, services, and data. Standards help form the building blocks of DL by establishing consistent protocols that can be universally understood and adopted. This helps improve compatibility and generally simplifies DL development. Standards also make it easier to understand and compare competing products and systems. It is only through the application of such standards that the credibility of new DL products can be tested and verified for conformance.
ADL is the principal steward of the Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM®) and the Experience API (xAPI). The affordances of these two standards and various types of DL they support underpin much of what the DoDI 1322.26 policy is based upon.
For more information on SCORM®, the DoD standard for self-paced, asynchronous DL that is specifically delivered in a desktop/laptop browser please read the DoDI SCORM® Reference.
For more information on xAPI, the new standard for tracking all other types of learning activities that can be delivered on any device or platform read the DoDI xAPI Reference.
The considerations referenced above include adopting existing standards, as well as evolving profile specifications, to support the current and future interoperability requirements of DL content and systems. DL Components should implement ADL learning standards and specifications in the following ways:
Option 1: Implement a SCORM®-conformant LMS
Option 2: Implement SCORM®-conformant LMS with LRS
Option 3: Implement Standalone LRS
ADL oversees the process of DL conformance testing for SCORM® and xAPI. The conformance tests for xAPI are focused on LRS conformance and are being developed. Improving the conformance testing landscape for xAPI is a top priority for ADL. Certification opportunities for SCORM® and xAPI will also be announced in the near future.
DL systems are applications such as an LMS, LCMS, or LRS intended to support sophisticated learning and training capabilities leveraging DL content. Similar to "Analyzing DL Requirements" above for DL content, DoD Components should consider the following for DL systems:
For most DL systems, we expect there will be some mix of LMS, LCMS, and/or LRS available. DoDI 1322.26 establishes baseline scenarios for the interplay of SCORM® and xAPI in DL systems. ADL will update this reference as best practices emerge from those baseline scenarios and/or alternative practices are deemed to be preferable for DL training and learning among DoD Components.
Analysis is critical for informing the acquisition, design, and development decisions of DL content. DoD Components responsible for developing DL must conduct an analysis before creating or acquiring new or modifying existing training materials. DoD Components should identify and analyze performance gaps and determine the best solutions to address the gaps. If DL content is identified as an appropriate solution, DoD Components should:
Federal regulation mandates electronic and information technology resources be made accessible to people with disabilities, e.g., 508 compliant. When appropriate DL should be made accessible to disabled employees and disabled members of the public. Access shall be comparable to that available to non-disabled individuals in compliance with the requirements, applicability, and alternatives provided in Procedures for Ensuring the Accessibility of Electronic and InformationTechnology (E&IT) Procured by DoD Organizations. Current specific standards and methods for development and testing are provided at the Section 508 website.
DoDI 1322.26 does not specifically address cybersecurity or information assurance (IA) considerations, although ADL recognizes that such considerations are imperative for DL implementations.
When specifically acquiring or developing Interactive Electronic Technical Manuals, consider the Darwin Information Typing Architecture (DITA) or S1000D specifications.